Conf/ABSTRACTS - The Third Online Conference of Armenian Researchers and Students in China, 27 November 2016, China

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Abstracts of The Third Online Conference of Armenian Researchers and Students in China, 27 November 2016, China

CONFERENCE CALL for PAPERS WAS ANNOUNCED HERE

CONFERENCE PROGRAM WAS ANNOUNCED HERE

Մհեր Սահակյան («Չինաստան-Եվրասիա» քաղաքական և ռազմավարական  հետազոտությունների  խորհուրդ)

ԿՈՐԵԱԿԱՆ ԵՐԿՈՒ ՄՈԴԵԼՆԵՐԸ ԵՎ ՀՀ-Ն

Abstract

Ներկայիս ռազմաքաղաքական լարված իրավիճակում ավելի կարևոր է դառնում ՀՀ-ի կողﬕց կոնկրետ զարգացման ուղի որդեգրելու հրամայականը: Հարցեր են հնչում, թե որոնք են այն ճանապարհները, որ կարող են նպաստել ՀՀ անվտանգության ապահովմանը, բարդ տարածաշրջանում փակ սահմաններով տնտեսության զարգացմանը:

Լինե՞լ, թե՞ չլինել հարցի իմաստը տեղավորվում է հետևյալի ﬔջ. ինչպե՞ս է հնարավոր, ﬕ կողﬕց, ունենալ արդիական բանակ, իսկ մյուս կողﬕց՝ զարգացնել տնտեսությունը: Այսինքն՝ այս հարցը պետք է կարդալ հակառակ կողﬕց՝ հասկանալով, որ առանց զարգացած ու մրցունակ տնտեսության հնարավոր չէ ունենալ ժամանակակից բանակ և ապահովել անվտանգությունը: Որպես ՀՀ զարգացման երկու հնարավոր օրինակ ուսուﬓասիրենք Կորեական թերակղզու 2 պետությունների՝ Կորեայի Ժողովրդական Դեմոկրատական Հանրապետության (ԿԺԴՀ կամ Հյուսիսային Կորեա) և Կորեայի Հանրապետության (ԿՀ կամ Հարավային  Կորեա) օրինակները:

Ruben Giney (Andin Foundation) XUANDE BRONZE BOWL FROM GYUMRI

Abstract:

Discovered during the Sovietic period in the Armenian city of Gyumri the Xuāndé (宣德⾹炉) bronze bowl presents to us a key opportunity to understand the development of historical trade relations in the region. The bronze bowl found in Gyurmi is presumed to belong to a later time period than that of the reign of emperor Xuande, the rationale for this conclusion due to the preserved seal located on the lower surface of the bowl inscribed with the 楷书 (kǎishū) writing style, which contains an extra dash in the character - 德 (dé). This specific variation of the character appeared only during the reign of Emperor Kāngxī Dì (康熙帝) (1661-1722). His perennial rule was distinguished by the reestablishment of open trade with foreign countries with cities like Canton (idem. Guangzhou), Zayton (idem. Quanzhou) becoming a foothold for further international trade. This same period also coincided   with the strengthening of the international Armenian   trade network, which spanned the whole of Asia. The epicenter of this trade network was the suburb of Isfahan, the New Julfa which was established as a result of the forced relocation of the Armenian community by Shah Abbas I in the years 1604-05. At an astonishing fast rate the New Julfa then quickly became involved in long-distance trade from Europe to Far East.

The 宣德⾹炉 (xuān dé xiāng lú) designation can be translated as “the Xuande bowl for scented candles". As it is known that the inhabitants of Iran and Armenia rarely used scented candles during their the religious rites, it can be assumed that the bronze bowl came to Armenia, along with other commodities intended for trade

Anahit Parzyan, Doctoral Candidate (Nanjing University)

Единый Цифровой Рынок как способ обеспечения индекса продуктивности для стран Евразийского Экономического Союза .

Любое сообщество может быть реально продуктивным, если будет популярным и ощутимо- продуктивным для тех, для кого создавался. Евразийский Экономический Союз может стать продуктивным, если будет выгодным в первую очередь для граждан тех стран, для которых она и была создана. В 21 веке лучшим объединяющим порталом является цифровое пространство, которое представляет возможность предлагать и находить, обмениваться, сообщать и получать...Можно сказать, что оно является тем объединяющим пространством, где можно ужиться без условий и предостережений, а также без географических препятствий. В этом контексте Единый цифровой рынок мог бы являться этим объединяющим порталом, который может стать эффективно функционирующим и продуктивным для всех сторон ЕЭС. Единый цифровой рынок успешно прогрессирует, предлагая многогранные возможности для малого, среднего и большого бизнеса. Удобность, быстрота, большой выбор и возможность преодоления географических препятствий, доступность, конкуренция, делают рынок популярным и дают ожидаемый экономической рост.

Создание Единого цифрового рынка дело много этапное: включает в себя ряд технических условий а так же организационные моменты.

Իրավունք/Law

Saren Abgaryan, Doctoral Candidate ( Shanghai Jiao Tong University)

China’s Accession to WTO And Its Influence on Attracting Foreign Direct Investments

Abstract:

Among the most important international law issues that China has been facing during the last several decades, are dealing with the country’s economic and legal integration to the rest of the world, and more importantly to the developed world. In this article we are going to discuss Chinese legal integration to the west, specifically how joining to the WTO has affected to the country’s improvement of foreign investment regime and how effective it was.

The changes in the legal system have helped to make national and local laws of the country more consistent, they pushed the country to implement rules that promise that PRC will threat all the investors including domestic and foreign without any discrimination, and it has insured fair competition ground for all the enterprises. The country has improved its company law regulations, competition law regulations, administrative regulations and so on.

Those changes were not mere mechanical; they have brought many substantial advantages to the country, and are among the reasons of integration of China to the world economies and trade. A decade after the accession of organization the trade of the country has skyrocketed, making China the single biggest exporter of goods from the country, and second largest importer. After accession to WTO the FDI rate has started to grow more substantially making the country a top destination for foreign investments. Those improvements add up to encourage economic development of the country directly influencing the GDP growth of China.

We will start the discussion with very brief introduction on the requirements that countries usually meet to attract foreign direct investments, and will discuss the situation of China. We will underline several big challenges that the foreign and domestic investors were facing in the country, and evaluate the changes that have been made in the country. In this context, we will discuss the process of WTO integration for China. The essay will give clarifications on why the country took such a long time, fifteen years, to join the organization emphasizing the main challenges if the accession process. Further clarifications will be given on the topic of how the WTO rules are being applied in the country, in a dualist or monist theory of law. After discussing those procedural issues of the WTO accession, we will talk about the huge amount of legal and economic changes that the country had to make before making the accession, and how it influence into PRC’s economic and trade integration to the rest of the word. And in the end we will evaluate the situation to show how it influenced to improving the investment legal regime of the country, becoming among the most important steps for attracting even bigger inflow of foreign capital.

Every businessman at least once in his practice couldn’t reach an agreement with his counteragent which led to a conflict. Historically, when there was a dispute between parties state courts had the power to settle it. However, during the time, the amount of disputes between parties has increased which made the civil litigation too slow with significant waste of time as well as ineffectiveness in the view of complexity.

This concern as well as the process of globalization caused the creation of alternatives means of dispute resolution. Present article will illustrate the alternative means of dispute resolution, particularly speaking mediation. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is a wide range of process aimed to find a resolution of disputes in a non-confrontational way. Alternative Dispute Resolution can take different types such as: simple negotiation between two parties or a multiparty negotiation, mediation, conciliation, as well as arbitration.

Mediation

Mediation is the fastest growing ADR form. It can be described as voluntary process to facilitate the communication and the negotiation between the parties of a dispute. This process aims to achieve to a mutually accepted resolution. It is common in labor, family, business, as well as in commercial disputes. As I previously stated Mediation not only assists the courts and the heavy load that they represent but also considered as in alternative solution for businessman , one that involves less time and cost.

The dispute between parties is settled by a third party called mediator.

We should bear in mind that the mediator has to be a neutral. The mediator appears as an impartial party who doesn’t have any direct interest in the conflict and its outcome. The Mediator may suggest ways of resolving the dispute, but may not impose his own judgment. If the parties are not satisfied with the decision they have the right to go to court or to an arbitrator.

It is essential to understand that the decision making power is set on the parties. First of all they agree to a process, its content and they have control over the resolution of the dispute. It is said that the parties are the architects of the solution. Here the mediator by facilitating the negotiation process tries to reach win–win solution for the parties. However, on the other hand unlike the pure negotiations, where the third party is involved simply as a host, the mediator has a more active role. He not only facilitates the negotiation process but also helps the parties to understand the origins of their conflict and their interests to reach a mutual resolution.

There are two main types of Mediation: direct and indirect mediation.

Direct mediation

In this case both parties with the presence of the mediator are directly participating in the mediation process.

The meetings can be either face-to-face or a long-distance meetings by the means of video communication.

Indirect mediation

On the contrary, indirect mediation refers to mediation in which the parties do not directly meet one another during the mediation but each meets with the mediator separately. To move on I would like to briefly introduce the main advantages of mediation:

Flexibility

The process of mediation is quite flexible. The parties are free to choose the location, time and the people involved in mediation. Unlike the litigation process where the rules of the procedure are strictly fixed here there are not fixed rules. They are flexible that are decided by parties. 

Informality

As we all know not everyone isn’t familiar with a complex legal language and its vocabulary. Most of the time people have difficulties to understand or express themselves. This is why mediation allows the parties to present their arguments in an informal manner. The parties can freely express their feelings.

Confidentiality

Mediation isn’t public moreover it has to be confidential.

The mediator will not share any information to the other party or to anyone else (even the judge) without permission. This gives the parties more confidence towards the mediator.

Լեզվաբանություն/Linguistics

Meri Knyazyan, Doctoral Candidate (Beijing Foreign Studies University) The Compilation of A Primary Chinese-Armenian Learner's Dictionary

Abstract:

For people learning Chinese in Armenia, as in any other country in the world, the initial and main difficulties lie in the learning of Chinese characters. Unlike Chinese language, alphabetic system of writing exists in Armenian language which is completely different from character writing system. In the Armenian language our students look at a word on the page, immediately know its sound, and can connect it to a meaning directly through the brain's oral lexicon. When they look at a Chinese character, the brain connects it separately to its sound and to its meaning. It takes them more time to learn to read Chinese characters as they should get enough knowledge about their nature first.

The purpose of compiling a primary Chinese-Armenian dictionary is to serve the needs of Chinese language teaching in Armenia by rendering the learning of Chinese characters more interesting as well as less difficult. To meet this purpose, the author of the paper argues: first, that such a dictionary should cover the most commonly used 1,000 or so Chinese characters together with about 3,000 Chinese words composed of two or more of these characters; second, all the radicals (形旁) and phonetics (声旁) of these characters should be identified; third, all the head characters and headwords should be grammatically labled; and fourth, the most common collocations of the head characters and headwords should be provided.

Գրականություն /Literature

Robert Tsaturyan (Renmin University)
Tracing Trauma in Chinese Contemporary Poetry: Xi Chuan (西川)and His Childhood

  1. Background/ Objectives and Goals

There already is an abundant of research on psychological trauma and its relation to man-made disasters. In the context of Chinese literature there is even a separate genre called Scar Literature(伤痕⽂学)which addresses the post-Cultural Revolution psychological reality of the society.

However we still lack research in contemporary poetry as a product of the traumatized consciousness of the poet-to-be child. Our goal is to show that the psychological trauma can be excavated in the poetry of those who grew up during the years of chaos, even in a case where the poet’s consciousness avoids writing it.

  1. Methods

The methods used in analyzing a poem where trauma is not seen from the first sight, can simply be called psychoanalysis of poetry. This is however is not the same as the Psychoanalytic literary criticism, which is rarely applied in analyzing poetry. Our theoretical basis are the recent research and writings of Sociologists working in the field such as: Jeffrey C. Alexander, Neil J. Smelser, Shoshana Felman, Cathy Caruth, etc. Through analyzing a single poem by Xi Chuan, we claim that his childhood experience found itself in the middle of a man-made disaster has had a deep psychological effect and that a trauma can be traced in his works, in the form of an unconscious represented by words.

  1. Expected Results/ Conclusion/ Contribution

On the example of one poem an attempt has been made to show that the psychological trauma of  the Cultural Revolution is stronger on the generation of poets who grew up during those years, and that even if they don’t touch that historical event in their writings – the unconscious narrates instead

– history forcibly enters. A memory of childhood affects stronger and lasts longer as it occurred during an incomplete development, and adding the fact of a man-made disaster of the Cultural Revolution, the trauma becomes even more serious. Xi Chuan and other poets of his generation  are not considered the direct victims of the event, since other ones like Bei Dao (北岛), Duo

Duo(多多) , etc. were the ones wrote underground poetry and came to prominence immediately after the Cultural Revolution was over.

We conclude that the poetry of Xi Chuan and his generation is the direct result of the psychological trauma experienced in the childhood, and we hope that this will open a new phase in poetry analysis emphasizing not the poets’ conscious struggles with the authorities to get their voice heard, but to the unconscious, as poetry is written more with the navel and less with the brain. Poetry research  in China has the need to shift from the personalized and author-centered analysis to the deeper layers of words and language, shattered from historical, political and social turbulences.

Միջմշակութային  հաղորդակցություն/Intercultural Communication

Микаэл Айрапетян (Московский гос. университет культуры иискусств, Тяньцзиньский  педагогический университет)

Тайны Армении. Международный музыкальный проект. Результаты работы в 2016 году и планы на 2017 год. 

Abstract:

«Тайны Армении» — проект Микаэла Айрапетяна, посвященный открытию классической музыки Армении, корни которой уходят в народное творчество III века до нашей эры. За столь продолжительный период музыка успела накопить много тайн, связанных с историей и культурой страны. Одну из таких тайн — имена композиторов, незаслуженно забытые во времени, — раскрывают на своих концертах музыканты проекта.

Деятельность Международного музыкального проекта направлена на широкий процесс популяризации армянской классической музыки и творчества армянских композиторов. Проект "Тайны Армении" был создан в 2010 году в стенах Московской государственной консерватории имени П. И. Чайковского, чьи музыкальные традиции были взяты за его основу.

Արաքսյա  Ներսիսյան

(Չինաստանի  Կենտրոնական  Ազգագրական Համալսարան)
Հին Չինաստանի սպասքի պարագաները ու դրանց իմաստային վերածնունդը

Բոլորիս հայտնի է որ Չինաստանը հազարավոր տարիների հարուստ պատմություն ունեցող երկիր է լի բազմաթիվ գաղտնիքներով: Չինական մշակույթն ուսուﬓասիրող մարդու աչքից չի կարող վրիպել ﬕ հետաքրքիր փաստ, այն է, որ այստեղ աﬔն ինչ փոխկապակցված է ու ներդաշնակ:

Հետևյալ աշխատանքս ներկայացնում է հին չինական սպասքի պարագաները, մասնավորապես դրանցից երկու աﬔնանշանավորները, քանի որ դրանց շուրջ հյուսված են բազմաթիվ պատմություններ: Դրանք չինական մշակույթի և արվեստի լավագույն դրսևորուﬓերից են, ինչպես նաև իրենց յուրօրինակ տեղն ունեն աշխարհի մշակութային արժեքների ցանկում

Այս սպասքի պարագաները ոչ ﬕայն անկրկնելի են դրանց կատարման արհեստավարժությամբ, այլ նաև դրանց գաղափարական իմաստով: Հետաքրքիր էր բացահայտել դրանց իմաստային դրսևորվումը և գործածությունը ինչպես հին չինական մշակույթում, այնպես էլ ժամանակակից չինարեն լեզվում: Ժամանակակից չինարեն լեզվում, հաճախ պահպանելով նախնական իմաստը, երբեﬓ էլ փոքրինչ հեռանալով արմատական իմաստից, այս բառերը մտել են առօրյա գործածության մեջ:

Ծրագրավորում/Programming

Dr. Hermine Hovhannisyan (City University of Hong Kong)
Implementation and Mitigation of Covert Channels in Cloud Computing Services

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a promising technology to reduce costs, which explains the recent exponential growth in cloud service offerings. However, the popularity and wide usage of cloud services has been matched with corresponding attention towards the development of security issues such as covert channels. Covert channels establish hidden communication with the purpose of exchanging sensitive data, which violates the confidentiality of cloud services. To enhance the security of cyber systems, identification and elimination of covert channel is an emergent, yet challenging task for cloud companies. While there are many studies on covert channel investigation and mitigation, most of them present certain channels in specific scenarios.

The purpose of this thesis is to give a complete state-of-the-art overview of covert channels and their mitigation methods in cloud computing services. Moreover, we design and implement covert channels in virtualized environments and provide effective solutions to mitigate some existing channels. We also present covert channel capacity estimation techniques that give a better understanding of the conditions for covert channel existence. The contributions of this thesis are mainly composed of three parts; investigation and classification, design and implementation and mitigation of covert channels in cloud computing services.

We start our work by presenting a detailed investigation and evaluation of 13 types of covert channels in cloud virtualized environments. We classify covert channel mitigation schemes and discuss most popular methods in each type. Furthermore, we benchmark each method’s effectiveness and demonstrate covert channel vulnerability or resistance for each scheme.

Secondly, we design and evaluate two types of covert channels that can exist in modern cloud computing services. The first type of covert channel we introduce in this work is IP timing-based covert channel that can be established to send sensitive data out of a cloud network. IP timing  covert channel is a huge risk because IP is the dominating communication protocol for computer networks. However, despite the potential risks, existing IP timing covert channels seem to be less significant because most of them carry information by arbitrary inter packet delays, which leads to low transmission rates and can be easily detected. In this work, we identify a novel IP timing covert channel that can significantly increase the transmission rate. Specifically, we propose a new framework for IP timing covert channel, where the main idea is to use the routes to carry information. Based on the framework, we present the detailed designs for IP timing covert channels based on TCP and UDP, in which we develop new technique to reduce the channel error rate. To evaluate the performance of the proposed covert channels, we also implement them in realistic systems and conduct extensive experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed IP timing covert channel achieves 15 times higher rate than existing channels with less than 0.54% error rate. This study shows that the risk of IP timing channel can be more serious than expected, which requires more sophisticated countermeasures.

The other type of covert channel we design and evaluate in this work is cross-user  deduplication

-based channel in cloud storage services. To efficiently provide cloud storage services, most providers implement data deduplication schemes so as to reduce storage and network bandwidth consumption. Due to its broad application, many security issues about data deduplication have been investigated, such as data security, user privacy, covet channel, etc. In this work, we design a more powerful deduplication-based covert channel that can be used to transmit a complete message. Specifically, the key features of our design include: (1) a synchronization scheme that can establish a covert channel between a sender and a receiver, and (2) a novel coding scheme that allows each file to represent multiple bits in the message. To evaluate the proposed design, we implement the covert channel and conduct extensive experiments in different cloud storage systems.

Finally, we present an efficient solution to eliminate the risk of covert channel in cloud storage services. To mitigate such channels, many providers stopped using cross-user data duplication that led to huge waste of resources. In the literature, there are several methods to mitigate such channels, however, most of them either suggest to stop the use of cross-user deduplication or are very costly to implement for the providers. We propose a new virtual chunk-based mitigation solution that eliminates the risk of cross-user data duplication based covert channels in cloud storages. Furthermore, our scheme allows cloud storage providers to retain their use of cross-user deduplication at a low cost. In addition, we present new techniques to minimize the overhead and delay. To evaluate our mitigation design, we conduct extensive experiments, where we simulate the behavior of a potential attacker by establishing a deduplication-based covert channel.  The evaluation results demonstrate that by using our method, the error rate of the covert channel is as high as 60% in the best case scenario. This shows that it is impossible to accurately decode the covert channel, thus, we effectively mitigate the risk of cross-user deduplication-based covert channel in cloud storage systems.

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