Geology Research and Study Opportunities

Thousands of study and academic opportunities in Geology are available internationally. Conferences and summer schools in Geology are organized regularly in the best academic centers of the world. The majority of universities and many foundations also offer BA, MA, and Ph.D. programs in Geology as wells as postdoctoral research grants, awards, and fellowships. Below you will find the updated list of international opportunities available in Geology.

Geology Scholarships

Geology Fellowships

Geology Conferences

Geology relevant accounts on Twitter

How the Geology started? 

Geology is a study of Earth. Everything that is known about the past, present, and future of the planet Earth and other planets results from the Geologists' work. 

Modern Geology developed to satisfy the curiosity of humans about where they live, what is located under the ground, and what happens above in the sky. Also, people felt the necessity to study unfamiliar phenomena on Earth that disrupt their normal lives, such as earthquakes, eruptions, etc. In ancient times, people probably didn't call Earth processes as we call them now, and they hardly knew those processes as profoundly as we do now. However, they felt a need to have thorough knowledge about the Earth to adapt their lives and take security measures against natural hazards. 

Studying Earth dates back to ancient Greece in the fourth century. It comprises the two words explaining the term: "geo" means Earth, and "ology" means the study. Aristotle is one of the first individuals who had the documented observations about the Earth. Throughout the history of the discipline, people were mainly focused on studying rocks as something with the highest level of perseverance. Specialists believed that rocks could tell much about life in the past and help project that knowledge on the future.

The debates over how the rocks originated were held for many centuries, where different people had different theories. In the 19th century, James Hutton introduced Uniformitarianism, the core idea of which was that the present is the key to the past. Particularly, he claimed that the same Earth processes repeat themselves. Therefore if people can explore what is happening now, they can state that the same happened in the past. Also, he provided evidence that there are different ways of origins for rock. Some rocks were formed by heat & fire, and others by sedimentation. As Hutton suggested, the theory which is dominant up to current, and as many further Geology studies were based on it, he is considered the father of Modern Geology. 

What is Geology?

Geologists collect data about the Earth and other planets, analyze it and enrich humans' knowledge about the world they live in. Geology studies the materials that the Earth consists of. Further, Geology studies the detailed structure of those materials and what potential processes can happen in life due to the structural change of the Eart's materials. Constructing life on the planet according to its structure, safety, and convenience requirements significantly increases the quality of humans' lives. For example, we know that certain places are not purposed to construct buildings and live there, as there is a high risk of natural disasters. 

Based on the main areas of Geology studies, there are two major branches: Physical Geology and Historical Geology. 

Physical Geology

Physical Geology studies the physical features and processes of the Earth. For example, volcanoes, oceans, rocks, fossils, mountains. Its main branches include the following:

  • Mineralogy studies the physical properties, chemistry, and crystal structure of rocks' mineral constituents. 
  • Geomorphology watches the landscapes on Earth's surface to figure out how things like air, water, etc., can impact the landscape. 
  • Geochemistry explores Earth's Geological mechanisms by applying Chemical principles and approaches. 
  • Geophysics applies Physics laws and rules to study the Earth's interior and its surface. It also includes studies of the Earth's environment in space. 
  • Economic Geology explores the reserves, structure, and potential implications of natural resources such as metals and minerals for economic purposes.
  • Engineering Geology mixes Engineering decision-making and Geology knowledge to implement projects like constructing maps, roads, buildings, etc. 
  • Petrology is a study about rocks, how they can be formed, and what processes can make their transformation. 
  • Geomorphologists study how formations such as mountains, oceans, and other forms transform the Earth's surface. 
  • Soil scientists explore the way soil can be effectively used for sustainable agriculture. It also seeks ways to clean contaminated soils.
  • Stratigraphers investigate the fossil and mineral of layered rocks and their time and space relationships. 
  • Structural Geology deals with the changes in the Earth's structure, such as fracturing, deformation, etc. 
  • Volcanology is fully dedicated to understanding the structure and reasons for volcanoes to predict eruptions and save human lives. 
  • Hydrology studies water in all its forms and all its processes. This can help to avoid natural hazards related to water, such as a flood.

Historical Geology

Historical Geology focuses on the historical chronology of the Earth processes, including what happened in the past and how the occurred processes impacted the Earth of the present. Historical Geography major directions include:

  • Paleontology collects information about the life of the past by examining the remains of animals, plants, bacteria, fungi, and other fossils.
  • Paleogeography explores the changes that happened on the Earth in the past. For example, where were the continents located before, how the landscape of the Earth changed, etc. 
  • Geological mapping aims to prepare maps and geological reports of certain areas by thoroughly examining their characteristics and aspects. 

Geology majors

As Geology is a discipline that is often used interchangeably with Earth science or Geosciences, you might meet similarly named academic programs in many universities. It's considered that students need at least above-average knowledge in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Geography, etc., to succeed in Geology studies. Many university admissions will require you to demonstrate a high level of academic achievements for the mentioned subjects. 

Usually, Geology undergraduate studies start with introductory courses, which tell students how to identify and explore the main study objects: rocks, minerals, and fossils. Bachelor's studies also include knowledge about the most popular Earth processes such as earthquakes, erosion, weathering, etc. Also, many study activities will occur in laboratories or at field trips, as the discipline requires much practical experience. 

Graduate studies in Geology explore more advanced areas such as Applied Environmental Geology, Engineering Geology, Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, Geoinformation Technology, etc. 

Geology studies prepare specialists who can understand and predict the Earth and Universe processes, regulate the supply of natural resources, and organize life to protect people from natural hazards as much as possible. The potential research directions in Geology include the following:

  • Global climate change
  • Earthquakes
  • Environmental issues
  • Antarctica
  • Earth deformations
  • Natural resources
  • Natural hazards
  • Melting processes

Geology is one of the most exciting and essential areas of research. We hope this section of ARMACAD will help you advance society's knowledge in Geology.