Culture Research and Study Opportunities

Thousands of study and academic opportunities in Culture are available internationally. Conferences and summer schools in Culture are organized regularly in the best academic centers of the world. The majority of universities and many foundations also offer BA, MA, and Ph.D. programs in Culture as wells as postdoctoral research grants, awards, and fellowships. Below you will find the updated list of international opportunities available in Culture.

Cultural Studies Scholarships

Cultural Studies Fellowships

Cultural Studies Conferences

Cultural Studies relevant accounts on Twitter

What is Culture?

Culture (lat. cultura - cultivation, education, development) is a historically defined level of development of society and an individual, expressed in the types and forms of organization of life and human activities and the material and spiritual values ​​they create. 

Although the word "culture" appears in European social thought only in the second half of the 18th century, we can find similar concepts in the early stages of the world's history. Thus, for example, the ancient Greeks and Romans saw their difference from the barbarian tribes in civility (one of the forms of the term “culture”). Over time, the concept of “culture” has changed and expanded many times. The word “culture” started to be associated more with the signs of personal excellence, primarily with being religious. And now it has become a very broad concept that everyone can interpret in their own way.

Culture is all the most sublime that is created by humanity. It is a combination of beauty and sophistication, a creative work of spirit and intellect. Improvement of a person and society as a whole is impossible without culture. It is everything that a person creates, and at the same time, it establishes the person's identity. Literature, art, philosophy, music are the most crucial components of the culture since they are created for self-awareness and transformation of humanity. 

Culture Types

The study of culture is meticulous work. Scientists study culture to understand patterns of human behavior. While there is an unlimited number of ways that people can express their culture, sociologists have developed two fundamental categories for defining things that a society produces: material and spiritual. Everything that can be seen and touched belongs to the material. Spiritual Culture is something that exists but cannot be seen.

The spiritual culture is the area of consciousness, a product of spiritual production. It includes the entire set of products of a person’s spiritual and intellectual activity that does not have a material nature. This includes art, philosophy, science, education, morality, religion, etc.

For example, the results of spiritual activities, objects of art help scientists restore the way of life of our ancestors to understand how our ancestors understood the beauty and the sublime. And if the study of ancient artifacts is the prerogative of archaeologists, then representatives of many other professions are exploring the spiritual culture: art, beliefs, legends and myths, fairy tales, music and etc.

For a long time, only spiritual activities and spiritual values were considered under the concept of culture. Material production was neglected. However, human activity is primarily material activity. From the times of primitive society, the entire human culture is a way of obtaining food, fighting for survival, mores, customs, etc. And all this is also an integral part of human culture.

The term “material culture” was introduced into cultural studies by ethnographers and anthropologists, who under this concept understood the characteristic features of the culture of traditional societies. Traditionally, under the human material, products are considered artifacts, houses built, weapons, items of religious worship, etc. Now the concept of “material culture” began to define all material and practical human activity and its results: working instruments, housing, everyday objects, clothing, means of transport and communication, etc. All these are products of human labor, knowledge, and experience.

Cultural Studies

Since culture is a very broad concept, it is simply impossible to study it all. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that draws on many different subject areas, including sociology, arts, anthropology, philosophy, political science, history, and others. Cultural studies actually examine the methods with the help of which the culture is built and organized and how it develops and changes over time. 

A musician, an artist, a writer, a philosopher, and many others are considered to be cultural workers. However, if you want to study the culture precisely, you will most likely have to choose an exact direction. For instance, if you decide to study French Culture, that will mean that you will start learning the French language, history, arts, music, kitchen, etc. Or you can take a broader direction and study Western Culture in general. But for this, you’ll need knowledge of at least 2-3 languages.

There are many opportunities for cultural studies in different countries. As each country strives to export its culture and raise awareness about it, they are happy to train people who will help with it. One of the strongest cultural movements is the Francophonie, which is held every year in different countries. Through these events, people get to know and fall in love with French Culture. 

Exploring culture is a way to touch beauty. If you have chosen this direction, you are definitely a fan of the great creations of humankind. We hope this section of ARMACAD will help you explore the past and all the beauty humanity created and continue to create every day.