Fudan University was established in 1905 as Fudan Public School. It was the first institution of higher education to be founded by a Chinese person, renowned modern educator Ma Xiangbo. The school’s name was chosen from the “Biography of Yuxia” in the Classic of History (《尚书大传 虞夏传》), where the two characters fù复 (“return”) and dàn旦 (“dawn”) are found in the famous lines “Brilliant are the sunshine and moonlight, again the morning glory after the night,” signifying continuous self-renewal, and expressing the hope that China could become a country with a strong higher education system run by Chinese intellectuals. In 1917 the name was changed from Fudan Public School to Fudan Private School; in 1937 after the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, the school moved to Beipei in Chongqing, and in 1941 it became state-run; in 1946 it moved back to its original location in Jiangwan, Shanghai. After the nationwide restructuring of institutions of higher education in 1952, Fudan University became a comprehensive university of arts and sciences; in 1959 it became one of the first National Key Universities along with Shanghai First Medical College (later known as Shanghai Medical University).
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